Friday, March 4, 2011

The Racial Controversy of a Violent Gene


Journalism, like any art form, has genres. There is a popular celebrity-fall-from-grace genre. There is the up-and-coming cable-television-political-commentator-zings-opposing-network-political-commentator genre. One particularly controversial genre is the scientists-discover-the-fill-in-the-blank-gene genre, with usually superficial and forgettable entries. However, I would submit that there is at least one gene for something, and it concerns one of society’s ugliest controversies, the stereotype of the black male thug.

I am referring to a gene called monoamine oxidase A, or MAOA. This gene produces an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitters that activate many of the brain’s circuits. Back in the 1990’s, scientists discovered a mutation of MAOA that completely turns it off. The result is called Brunner syndrome, which only 14 related men have been known to have (plus animal models). What makes this extremely rare mutation so important is that it proves that MAOA really is a violent delinquency gene. A man with Brunner syndrome is what expert psychiatrists refer to as “a bad guy.” Five of these men were arsonists. Some of the men were rapists or attempted killers. Inexplicably, four men with the mutation somehow escaped having the syndrome, but for men with the mutation, those are not good odds. Nevertheless, out of the approximately three-and-a-half-billion men in the world, 14 really are not that many. Trust me, your neighbor—the one with the motorcycle—is probably not one of them. In conclusion, out of sight, out of mind.




Then came the 2000’s. The MAOA gene has a portion with repeated segments of DNA. This section of the gene is called a promoter because having more repeats increases the amount of enzyme that the gene produces (with a rare, debatable exception). After a 2002 study found that having three repeats together with having suffered child abuse is somewhat associated with violent tendencies, a flood of follow-up research ensued, and MAOA was relabeled “the warrior gene.” This version of the gene and one with four repeats are the most common versions, or alleles. These studies always had a few people with neither the 3-repeat nor the 4-repeat allele. A small number only had 2-repeats. The scientists decided that having 2-repeats in the promoter is sort of like having 3-repeats, so they invented the term “MAOA-L.” (“L” stands for low. Pretty clever, huh?) However, a pair of studies in 2008 found that the 2-repeat allele is associated with twice the rate of violence without child abuse coming into the equation. This allele is less powerful than Brunner syndrome but far more common.

Two small studies gave hints that the especially dangerous 2-repeat allele might be more common among African Americans. One study wrote that 6% of their non-white (but probably mostly African-American) male subjects had this allele. The other had 5 of 37 (14%) African-American men possessing “rare MAOA alleles.” Those percentages are remarkable given that studies of white men have suggested that 1% or fewer have this gene.

If a single gene could offer some explanation as to why African-Americans commit roughly five times as many violent crimes per capita as whites, then wouldn’t studying it potentially save countless lives and deserve a Nobel Prize? After all, even a case of Brunner syndrome was effectively treated for a period with an antipsychotic. Well, at long last, Reti et al determined that 0.5% of white MAOA genes and 4.7% of African-American MAOA genes are this 2-repeat allele, almost a ten-fold difference.


Calculating Violence


Hopefully, for the sake of improved diagnosis and treatment, a small number of genes like MAOA greatly influence societal problems like violent delinquency. However, some studies suggest that the genetics of behavior is spread diffusely among many genes. Science must also examine the complex web of gene-environment, gene-hormone, and gene-gene interactions. As the price of decoding genomes declines, it will become easier to develop software that analyzes standardized behavioral and developmental metrics and multiple gene elements for sundry associations.

Consider the study Beaver et al from about one year ago. This was a study of African-American men and five violence genes that reached the shocking conclusion that a crude genetic index of these genes predicted adult violent delinquency better than a detailed measure of the quality of the men’s childhood relationship with their respective mothers. This finding is all the more impressive given how unimpressive the gene index was. Each allele was assigned a point. A 2-repeat allele of MAOA was worth the same as a 3-repeat allele of MAOA and the same as an allele of another gene that had limited evidence of impacting violent behavior. Also, MAOA is on the X chromosome, meaning that these men only had one copy, unlike the other genes, which come in pairs. So, apparently having a 2-repeat allele was actually worth only half as much as each pair of the other genes. This study could be improved upon by follow up research that weights the genes differently using a computer program that could compare multitudinous reiterations to determine the optimum weights.


The Case for Maturity in Ethics


After following research on the genetics of violence for years now, I am convinced that the various alleles of MAOA affect violent behavior in white men and black men. Thus, the differing frequencies of these alleles might contribute to the differing rates of violent crime. I am sensitive to the fact that this line of research could reinforce unfair judgments that all black men are dangerous, but the 2-repeat allele of MAOA illustrates that a gene might contribute to a racial disparity in violent behavior even though most black men do not have said allele. If it is an important violence gene, then maybe targeted treatments can be created that will be more likely to help African-American men and bring American society closer to equality. In other words, medical and scientific ethics should be informed by both the improved standards of moral responsibility since the end of the eugenics era and a mature, realistic appreciation of the coming genetics era.

18 comments:

The Cold Equations said...

If MAOA is really the key, it should be amenable to therapy. I don't think it would be that hard to come up with some drug that either degrades MAOA's targets or reduces their effects (maybe even currently available treatments like labetalol or carvedilol would help).

Imagine giving them depot shots or implants of this hypothetical drug, if this theory is right. Streets become safe again.

nooffensebut said...

Labetalol does not really cross the blood-brain barrier. Risperidone is the antipsychotic that successfully treated a man with Brunner syndrome, until the dosage went too high. After that, the symptom improvements never quite returned. Hormones interact with MAOA. Glucocorticoids are partial agonists that might help but with unfortunate side effects. The experimental drugs, Fenclonine, Ketanserin, and tetrabenazine, improved the aggressive behavior of mice that were given Brunner syndrome.

Anonymous said...

I wouldn't be surprised if the frequency of the 2-repeat allele reached 15% in certain neighborhoods i.e. housing projects like Cabrini Green. Just as the American frontier attracted all the psychopaths and sociopaths of Anglo society, the housing projects attract and retain the most violent members of the black community.

Luke Lea said...

Did they control for IQ? In The Bell Curve, Murray and Hernstein argue (I seem to recall) that these differences disappear once you take into account differences in IQ.

Trew said...

I'm sure you and the more insightful readers picked up on the fact that the FBI crime stats that you link to in the above post (here http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/table_49.html) do not break out Hispanics. They are, of course, lumped in with Whites, greatly skewing the White crime rate upward. Perhaps, what, doubling it?

Funny, in nearly every government study or report race & ethnicity are always broken out as White, black, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian. But here, not so. Wonder why???

Anonymous said...

"If MAOA is really the key, it should be amenable to therapy."

Better if it was bred out which would be easily achieved by applying the rule of law in those neighborhoods to the same extent it is in white neighborhoods.

That's all it needs.

If these individuals were taken out of society in their true proportions and not PC proportions then normal society has a chance or reasserting itself. Once normal society has taken root those kind of behaviors stop being adaptive.

"the housing projects attract and retain the most violent members of the black community."

No they breed them. Where men like this can get away with this behavior then they have more kids.

gabriel tyner said...

This violent gene only further reiterates our need to address the problem with kids and violence. They have this need to kill, but we only want to medicate them? What about given them a positive outlet for the violence? LIke a Dojo or Boxing Gym? I recently interviewed an ex-gang member of the Latin Kings who believes that this is a war between good and evil and we have to take sides. Kids need to know that we are ALL born to sin and they need some kind of spiritual guidance, after school programs, and of course positive role models in their life... WE have a problem that needs to be addressed now. Here is link to my blog about gangs in schools http://chasing-ghosts.com/?p=172

Anonymous said...

Of greater interest would be the frequency of this allele repeat among Continental Africans; only then can we know for sure that we're not dealing with another effect of 400 years of slavery; the "Sins of the fathers." as they say. Truth be told there were lots of aggressive encounters between Male European Slave Master and female African slave.

SickofAllOfIt said...

.
For the love of God -- STOP trying
to be so "politically correct" in
your articles by using terms like
"African-American" inaccurately
!!!!

Just because some people are a
bunch of BLACKS does NOT mean
they were also "African-Americans".

Charlize Theron (a White actress)
is a TRUE African-American.

Those other are just a bunch of
BLACK Americans (they are NOT
actual African-Americans).

Lots of White immigrants who
have fled African nations to
the U.S. for safety are actual
African-Americans -- and.
you should NOT insult their
heritage by comparing these.
BLACK imprisoned ground-apes
to any of them by being.
"politically-correct" and misusing
the term of African-American.
.

SickofAllOfIt said...

.
Every news story on those “people”
should use the following VOICE OVER …
.
"""And here are some scenes from our next terrifying
episode of ‘NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC’S WILD KINGDOM’ —
as we cautiously observe the impact of the unprovoked and
mind-boggling violent social-behavior as found displayed
among THE TYPICAL HERD-PACK when it is composed OF THE
“Non-Incarcerated-Ghetto-Ground-Ape” (aka. the ‘NIGGA’)."""
.
It should be noted that a baby gazelle surrounded by
a pride of lions is, on certain occasions, safer than
an actual human-being in the presence of THE TYPICAL
“Non-Incarcerated Ghetto-Ground-Ape” (the ‘NIGGA’).
.
May God help humanity and let this entire
species get forcibly sterilized …
throughout the whole world!!!"
.

SOA Ofit said...

.
Most of those 'A-Freak-cans' are NOT "starving"!!

In fact many of them are now Morbidly-Obese -- mostly
due to their sitting on their lazy, fat, black asses all day
simply waiting for the west to feed them (like the family
pet) -- while they just lie around 'begging' and 'breeding'.

http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/africa-obesity-new-hunger

http://m.irinnews.org/Report/96075/HEALTH-Increasing-obesity-in-sub-Saharan-Africa-threatens-child-survival

www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15954744/ns/health-diet_and_nutrition/t/even-africa-obesity-burgeoning-problem/#.UINsv2_IXfI

So the question then becomes ... WHY do the western nations
continue to provide these many 'A-Freak-cans' (especially the
ingrates that have 'immigrated' to the west in order to leech and
sponge off of it's social services programs) with tons of food,
educational opportunities, housing, home ownership programs,
medical care, transportation, recreation, etc. -- and -- also give
them the permission and the means by which to invade western
nations with continual influxes of mass-immigration of all of
these greedy, lazy, selfish, violent, ungrateful black hordes ?!?!

Even worse -- once these 'A-Freak-cans' drag their ungrateful, fat,
lazy, black asses into western nations AND sign-up for AND
demand every social service they ever hear of AND get free
education, home ownership, and 'forgiveable' business "loans"
(on the backs of the tax-paying citizens of those nations --
who cannot even afford to send their own kids to university
nor even qualify for a home or business loan without being
dragged through the ringer -- that is 'if' they even manage
to qualify at all) -- these 'A-Freak-can' immigrant (so-called
"refugees") THEN even go so far as to add insult to injury
by looking down their noses on and slanderously-lying
about the struggles facing the natural-born citizens of the
same host nations that these very same 'A-Freak-can'
parasites have targeted to exploit, ruin and rule over
(with having added little or nothing to the tax-base).

If we did NOT 'breed' them -- we should NOT have to 'feed'
them and (if they arrive to the west) they need to learn to
'assimilate' before they can expect to 'participate' in the
benefits, opportunities and services of our nations !!!

Will somebody please make these damn
'A-Freak-can' immigrants leave our lands?!
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The BLACK-IMMIGRANTS-AND-CRIME in the U.S.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.
"An econometic study by George J. Borjas suggested
that IMMIGRATION had detrimental effects ...
It ... lowered the employment rate ... [and]
increased the Black-incarceration rate ...
.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2009.00803.x/abstract;jsessionid=4FDB8E7ADF3CB0AF5524FB3D05AB4F7B.d03t04
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_to_the_United_States#cite_note-autogenerated-163
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12518
.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.
... focused on the high rate of
imprisonment of AFRICAN and
CARIBBEAN IMMIGRANTS ...

Today, OF THE close to 800,000
BLACKS IN U.S. PRISONS ---
around 80-85% are FROM
AFRICA and THE CARIBBEAN."
.
http://buquad.com/2011/12/02/i-cant-figure-out-a-good-title-for-this-one-sorry/
.

Anonymous said...

You're sick and hateful.

Anonymous said...

It might enlighten you to research white on white violence throughout the world. What gene triggers that? Lmao!!!!!

Anonymous said...

Right, because whites aren't violent. Rapists, serial killers and Nazis, mass murderers, school shooters, child molesters, etc...Aren't white. You're a true comedian! I'm Lmao right now. let's not forget the non violent white police officers who hosed and beat black children and peaceful protesters during the civil rights movement. oh, and lynching of blacks wasn't violent, right? But then neither was slavery... You need a psych evaluation.

Anonymous said...

Who bred you? Nonviolent whites from planet moron?

Anonymous said...

I´m so interested in genetics. Reading the comments here I wonder how many people (white, according to their self-definition) have this MAOA gene agressive version. It seems that is really greater than 1%, same as when we watch news on TV and almost all the big slaughters at schools, marathons and similar are caused by white people, isn´t it true? I hope that they do not belong to the scientific community, in the opposite we´ll be in big trouble because it sounds like very stupid and dangerous racist argument.

Anonymous said...

The gang-ruled underclass environment breeds violent genes.

I think the ratio may have 2:1 or 3:1 (or whatever) in the 1940s and has increased since.

Nowhereman said...

Seems the government itself wants to breed big, strong and tall aggressive blacks for so e reason, maybe they like BBC, I mean look how they want to offer pedophiles as sexual tributes to their black idols in prison nowadays, I think they want an army of super humans for some reason.